MULTIPLE-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOR AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE: A MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY
Main Article Content
Constant efforts have been made to improve the quality and performance of schools in Pakistan. Research has shown that leadership is a driving force in bringing about revolutionary changes in schools. This qualitative multiple-case study explores the task-oriented, relationoriented, and change-oriented leadership behaviors in selected highperforming schools in Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews from a total of 12 participants selected via purposive sampling. The participants included principals, assistant principals, and teachers from two high-performing schools. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory approach involving open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. The findings showed that leaders in selected high-performing schools exhibited adaptive leadership behaviors. The effective and continuous monitoring, proper planning, assigning and clarifying tasks, and efficiently distributing budgets were some of the task-oriented leadership behaviors in selected high-performing schools. The relation-oriented leadership behaviors were determined to be shared decision-making, establishing a friendly and trusting relationship, being open and honest, and recognizing contributions. Being active and ambitious, having strong vision, and commitment to change were the change-oriented leadership behaviors shared across selected schools. The findings of this study can be of use to the Ministry of Education Pakistan and the Education Department of the Government of Balochistan.