PRIVATE TUTORING IN MALAYSIA: THE NEXUS BETWEEN POLICY, PEOPLE AND PLACE
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Private tutoring is becoming a common phenomenon in Malaysia. Unlike other countries in the world where private tutoring is banned, in Malaysia the government has legally allowed the teachers to tutor. Indeed, it has enforced various regulations to monitor the implementation of private tutoring. This research deployed qualitative methodology to investigate the existing policies and regulations governing private tutoring in Malaysia. The research involved documentary analyses; semi-structured interviews and observations. Semi structured interviews were conducted with 10 respondents including district education officers, principals, teachers and parents in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Additionally observations were also conducted in two private tuition centers in urban areas. The findings indicate that many regulations can be used to monitor the implementation of private tutoring policy. However, there needs to be a balance between regulatory control, self-regulation, consumer protection and education. This depends on the capacities and priorities of the government and the extent of collaboration between partners. In the Malaysian case, regulations exist for teachers as well as private tutoring centers; however, continuous monitoring is needed both at the school and district level. Partnerships with media, Teachers Associations and other educational departments are quite limited.