EXPLORING BEFORE TRANSFORMING: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY ON HOME LEARNING CULTURE OF INDIGENOUS SEMAI PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN PERAK
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There is a recognised need for investigating home learning culture of indigenous students. Several attempts have been made to explore indigenous home learning culture in the overseas context; however, home learning culture, particularly among indigenous Semai primary school students in Perak, have yet to be understood. Several studies have documented exploration of the issue of low educational motivation among indigenous students in Malaysia in relation to parental and school context discretely rather than understanding learning culturally from both individual and social context at home. This study aimed to explore home learning culture of indigenous Semai primary school students between the ages of 9-12 in Perak using a phenomenological design to explore an in-depth understanding of home learning culture of six indigenous Semai primary school students. Data collection utilized the application of photography, individual semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews and naturalistic observations and thematic qualitative analysis were employed for data analysis. The principal findings in relation to indigenous home learning culture were cultural norms and values, formal education values, as well as developmental and modernisation values. The findings presented in this research add to our understanding of how and why indigenous students learn at home, and how home situations influence learning based on indigenous cultural norms and values through the shifts in formal institutional, developmental and technological conditions. It provides insight to school educators to embrace the learning experiences of indigenous students and be cognisant of the way they live, learn, and how they can be taught in the home, by providing appropriate resources to develop future pathways in response to their cultural, literacy and technological transformation to lead their learning improvement.